15 October 2013Online entries for South Africa’s 2014 Old Mutual Two Oceans Ultra Marathon opened on Tuesday. The 45th running of the 56-kilometre race takes place on Saturday, 19 April 2014, with an entry limit of 11 000 runners.To qualify for participation in the ultra marathon, runners must have completed at least one full marathon (42.2km) after 1 July 2013 in a time of less than five hours. However, runners do not have to pre-qualify to enter and can submit their qualifying times at a later stage.South African ultra marathon entrants are also required to belong to a registered running club and have a valid running licence. No temporary licences will be issued to ultra marathon runners.Race record money bonusIn addition to the R250 000 prize money that can be won by the ultra marathon winners, title sponsor Old Mutual will add an additional R1-million to the winning male and female runner if they break the race record.The men’s record of 3:03:44 was set in 1988 by road running legend Thompson Magawana, while Frith van der Merwe set the women’s record a year later in 1989 when she ran 3:30:36.The closest any runner has come to the record since then is Zimbabwean Marko Mambo, a three-time race winner, who ran 3:05:39 in 2005. Russian Olesya Nurgalieva ran the second fastest women’s time in 2008 when she crossed the finish line in 3:34:53.Ralph Mupita, the CEO for Old Mutual Emerging Markets, said in a statement: “We want to encourage top runners from around the world to come and compete in the biggest road running event on the African continent.”Phased approachIn an effort to alleviate pressure on the online entry system, and to give runners a fair chance to enter, the organisers have introduced a phased approach to the 2014 Half Marathon entries, which includes application into an entry draw in January 2014.From 17 October, runners are encouraged to update their personal profiles and medical details on the entry system, while new entrants can create their profiles.Blue (10 or more Two Oceans Ultra Marathons) and Light Blue (10 or more Two Oceans Half Marathons) number holders may enter from 10:00 on 5 November (limited to 1 000 entrants).Runners with valid SA running club licences may enter from 10:00 on 11 November (limited to 5 500 entrants).Previous finishersPrevious Two Oceans Half and Ultra Marathon and Trail Run finishers may enter from 10:00 on 14 November (limited to 2 000 entrants).New entrants, previous participants who finished outside the cut-off and those who missed their original entry batch may submit their applications into the entry draw from 10:00 on 22 January 2014.A random electronic draw on 23 January will select 6 000 entrants who may proceed to pay for their entry.Entries into the popular Trail Runs will open at 10:00 on 2 December, with an entry limit of 400 runners for the 10km and 22km trail runs respectively. Trail enthusiasts are advised to enter early, as both distances sold out within hours of entries opening last year.Online entry and entry formsUltra marathon runners can enter online or download an entry form at www.twooceansmarathon.org.za from 10:00 on 15 October.The Two Oceans Marathon website has been upgraded to ensure a better user experience for athletes, and is jam-packed with information around the various events hosted under its banner.“Designed to Run” is the theme that supports the 2014 Two Oceans Marathon marketing campaign – a coincidental hat-tip to Cape Town’s status as the World Design Capital next year.SAinfo reporter
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The National Pork Board recently released the first report from its Insight to Action research program. The report, Dinner at Home in America, examines the contextual occasions in which Americans are eating dinner in the home. The research identifies areas of growth opportunity for pork, serving up a bold new challenge to the pork industry: innovate or risk losing relevance with today’s — and more importantly tomorrow’s — consumer.“People live, shop and eat differently today. The pork industry has tremendous momentum with consumers, and that can be leveraged further through innovation in product development, bringing contemporary eating solutions to consumers,” said Jarrod Sutton, vice president of Domestic Marketing for the National Pork Board. “This research helps us intimately understand the needs and constraints that influence consumer dining choices, and provides a clear path for industry innovation that is rooted in data.”Dinner at Home in America is the first of several reports the National Pork Board will publish in 2019 as part of the Insight to Action research program. The research approach, which combines 10,000 interviews with demographic and spending data to provide a comprehensive look at how U.S. consumers eat, is a first-ever for the meat industry.Altogether, the National Pork Board uncovered nine unique dining occasions, or needs states, happening in homes on any given night of the week, ranging from solo dining to celebrating with extended family. During the course of any week, the same person can experience multiple eating occasions as their needs throughout the week change.Sutton emphasizes this research is groundbreaking because it goes further to answer questions around what people eat and why.“We are looking at who is at the dinner table, but we move beyond that to pinpoint the varied dinner occasions occurring every night,” he said. “With these insights, the industry can better understand the needs, behaviors and influences for each dining occasion. Most importantly, the research identifies opportunities for the industry to adapt and innovate.”The Dinner at Home in America report provides the food industry a veritable roadmap for product innovation and positioning.“Through its extensive research and analysis, the National Pork Board has curated provocative insights that the U.S. pork industry can act upon to best position pork to consumers,” said Steve Rommereim, National Pork Board president. “This is data that everyone at every step of the pork supply chain can use to better meet consumer needs and grow their business.”The research identifies opportunities to respond to changing consumer behaviors and drive category growth in three areas:Health: Educate consumers more effectively about the known health benefits, nutrient density and protein content of fresh and packaged pork cutsSimplicity and Ease: Innovate packaging and cuts to keep pace with evolving consumer needs and demand for convenience best illustrated through portion size, precooked or pre-seasoned options, and cooking and temperature directions.Versatility: Create meal solutions with pork as a key ingredient, moving beyond the old school thought of pork as a center-of-the-plate option only. Consumers seek diversity in their protein choice – from tacos to sandwiches and pasta to casseroles.“These insights have influenced a new marketing strategy for the Pork Checkoff designed to address key perceptions about our product: tasty, healthy, easy, safe, and sustainable,” Sutton said. “The foundation for all of this work is research and data first.”Survey respondents were members of Numerator/InfoScout’s shopper panel, and were selected to participate based upon past recorded purchases. Each respondent was age 18+, personally eats meat, and has at least some influence in buying or preparing food for the household. The survey, commissioned on behalf of the National Pork Board, was administered byC+ R Research to 10,163 adults.For more information on the National Pork Board’s Insight to Action research, Dinner at Home in America research, or to download the full report, visit www.Pork.org/marketing.
A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… marshall kirkpatrick Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Related Posts Tags:#Product Reviews#web “It’s clear that the future of media consumption is tablets and mobile…if there’s anywhere to be experimenting as a company, it’s in the acceleration of content off the desktop. It’s a whole new world and now we need new tools.” So says Doug Imbruce, founder and CEO of Qwiki, a mostly-automated multi-media content creation system that today launches what Imbruce calls its true potential, unleashed: Qwiki on the iPad (iTunes).All I’ve wanted to do since seeing it is spend time wandering through this app. It’s fabulous and it’s just beginning. If the company can execute its plans then this is going to be some seriously disruptive stuff. Some people hate Qwiki; those people will pay a high price for their cynicism – they’ll miss out on one of the most enjoyable information consumption experiences to emerge in some time.What is this magical app? Qwiki is a technology that takes raw text, photos and videos and attempts to weave it all together into a short, dynamic presentation that makes sense. The system notes data types like dates and locations and creates original infographics to represent it. There’s simply something about having articles read to you, with pictures, maps and charts moving around the page dynamically and ready to touch that is captivating. The first use case, the desktop and now iPad app, uses text from Wikipedia and media from elsewhere around the web. Could you just read the Wikipedia articles for yourself? Sure you could – but will you? That’s a fundamentally different experience from the lean back meandering through reference material that Qwiki makes you want to pour time into. There’s simply something about having articles read to you, with pictures, maps and charts moving around the page dynamically and ready to touch that is captivating. If you’ve tried Flipboard on the iPad – that does something similar, it transforms content into something tablet-friendly. Qwiki does that too, but whereas Flipboard’s content is entirely human-driven, Qwiki has location and algorithms driving its editorial decisions. Both are great apps. Flipboard uses the famous iPad swipe motion far more than Qwiki does, Qwiki’s use of big maps and swirling images is great on the iPad.“Most companies don’t have the DNA of both Art and Science,” Imbruce says. “We do and that’s why we can create such compelling products.”Is it perfect? No, but if you want to spend your time complaining about its shortcomings you just go ahead and do so – I’ll be busy learning about everything from the history of my neighborhood to famous baseball players to the Ed Sullivan Show. I’ve consumed more encyclopedic content in the past week thanks to Qwiki than I have in a year otherwise. Maybe longer. Sometimes I wish the Qwikis were longer, but if I’m really interested in learning about a topic in-depth I can click through to the Wikipedia article and then to original sources. That viewers are left feeling just a little unsatisfied after each bit might be part of why the next one is so easy to click on.Qwiki isn’t for every situation. It’s not a quiet activity and some people might not like the sound of the female robot’s voice. If you try to use the Qwiki iPad app on public transit (as I did yesterday) people may look at you like you’re a major snob from the future, given how futuristic and fancy the app looks.Qwiki wowed people when they saw it demonstrated on the desktop – but the iPad app is much, much better. It’s made for that form factor. That your iPad is mobile is significant too. The first thing the Qwiki app will ask you is for permission to access your location. Then, in addition to the Qwiki of the day, you’ll be shown a map you can click to zoom into. Click on that map and you’ll be taken to the city you’re in. Zoom out, zoom in, wherever you move the map view too, Qwiki will flag the 10 most popular geo-located Qwiki items within your current view. I first tested the app while visiting San Francisco. That was cool. Then I tested it when I got home – that was engaging and felt useful. Then I zipped the map down to the town I grew up in. That was an emotionally evocative experience.Imbruce knows it, too. “It feels really good to see a 16 year old view the Qwiki on Leonardo Da Vinci or to see my mother browse her grandparents’ home town in Italy,” he says. “This is a serious company, we’re going to build something that’s generationally significant.”Qwiki iPad App Demo from Qwiki on Vimeo.Qwiki as PlatformWhile the Qwiki app today is pretty cool, it has platform aspirations. Here’s what we wrote about Qwiki in our January post In Defense of Qwiki: The Machine That Reads to You:Qwiki wants to let a robot make beautiful movies for you to passively learn about any topic, any text, that you choose. The web is an interactive place, but sometimes it’s good to sit back and enjoy the fruits of that interactivity in a way that asks less of you as a user.Traditional multi-media content is too expensive to scale to serve the long-tail of would-be consumers. The days of broadcast, mass-media as “the only game in town” are gone. If we’re all going to get multi-media satisfaction, for all our obscure interests, a lot of it is going to need to be created by robots. Not all of it, but a lot of it. “Within 6 months to a year we will have a platform that ingests content, makes it intelligently summarized and makes it available on all kinds of different devices including interactive television,” Imbruce told me. “Publish once, play anywhere.”Imbruce says the company is choosing publishing partners to pilot with now. “We see extreme scale with 3rd parties deploying their content into Qwiki and we’ll remix it without human effort.”A big part of the platform, in addition to ordering the images in time with the read text, is the creation of infographics. “If you boil down Qwiki it’s the infographics,” Imbruce says. “We’ve only got a handful of those now but we’re going to offer a platform for thousands of types of infographic, most recent tweet, charts, foursquare check-ins. All the different types of infographics will become re-usable, too.”Qwiki and Legacy PublishersPublishers have raised major objections to the transition of their content into other iPad formats that were different and not completely under their control. How will they react to the prospect of being Qwiki’d?“Newspapers didn’t want to go online 10 years ago, either,” Imbruce told me. “There’s a survival instinct where most publishers have a bureaucracy that prevents them from producing a compelling UX. Just as the shift online left publishers unable to exert the level of control they wished, that same shift will happen in the shift to mobile. We haven’t seen that reaction though, we’ve just seen enthusiasm.“In 2011 any company’s goal has to be to satisfy users or else they will die. Users have such a voice now that successful companies have to be user-centric. You can’t monopolize media any more and tell people your product is good, it has to be good.”Is Qwiki good? I think it’s great, but try it out for yourself and let me know what you think. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got some fresh Qwiki content to consume.
Related Posts China and America want the AI Prize Title: Who … How OKR’s Completely Transformed Our Culture Tags:#marketing#start#Venture Funding tim devaney and tom stein What Nobody Teaches You About Getting Your Star… How to Get Started in China and Have Success Web groceries, sock puppets, podcasting – Internet trends come and go. The trick is to know when the end is near and avoid doing something foolish, like paying $580 million for MySpace. Today, that means consumer Internet startups taking on celebrity investors.The Benefits Of Being FamousThe temptation is understandable. Celebrities offer a startup many potential benefits. Bold-face names can attract instant attention and help draw paying customers. At the same, they can establish credibility with investors, who these days will fund consumer Internet companies only if they can demonstrate a customer-acquisition cost lower than Kim Kardashian’s neckline.Plus, the celebs are into it too. Ever since Ashton Kutcher and Bono got (way more) rich investing in startups like Foursquare and Airbnb (Kutcher) and Facebook and Dropbox (Bono), every Hollywood star and has-been wants in on a hot startup.But if you have a consumer Internet company and you don’t already have a celebrity investor, you’ve pretty much missed the bus. The startup-star marriage is over. Over like Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes. Over like Paris Hilton and DJ Afrojack.Every Which Way But LooseTrouble is, all the good celebs are taken. There are only a handful of stars like Kutcher, who invests serious money and, by all accounts, adds real value to the companies he funds. The rest are just into tech for the buzz. And you don’t want people like that – or their hangers-on – getting their paws on your startup.“This is typical monkey behavior of imitation and greed,” says Paul Kedrosky, a senior fellow at the Kauffman Foundation who focuses on entrepreneurship and innovation. “We’re all a bunch of apes and we see the other apes doing things that make them money and get them attention, so we imitate. And there’s no place more full of imitative behavior than the entertainment industry. These people are acutely aware of being a fast follower and that currently involves this fondness for technology.” Kedrosky says celebrities come with the same advantages and disadvantages as other angel investors “but dialed to 11.” Some do have domain competencies that match the startups they pair off with – like Lady Gaga and Turntable.fm – but even then they tend to be fickle. They don’t have the attention span for follow-on investments and they hit the exit at the first sign of trouble. “It’s the usual bipolar disorder you get when dealing with angel investors,” Kedrosky says, “but way more exaggerated.”Is Your Startup A “Winner”? Worse, you could end up hitching your company to a Charlie Sheen or Amanda Bynes. “You rise up with them but then they become embroiled in some goat-boy scandal and you fall with them, with no connection to the merits of your company.”If you feel you must recruit a celebrity, aim for a star with a large Twitter following. “If you are going to get an angel investor involved who’s writing smaller checks, they’d better be able to bring a lot of Twitter followers,” Kedrosky advises. “There’s a correlation between people on Twitter with the most followers and the likelihood they’ll become celebrity investors. I have no hard data but I’d argue that is absolutely the case.”Make Sure The Stars AlignAlso make sure your product aligns with the talents of the star, Kedrosky suggests. “If you have some kind of enterprise application for building cloud services, good luck with that. Odds are you won’t get an A-list actor to invest.”Whoever you decide to pursue, you should hurry. The celebrity-investor craze is coming to a close. In fact, Kedrosky thinks it’s time to get out of the consumer Internet business altogether.“As soon as it becomes obvious to people that this is an easy way to make money, then it no longer is easy. So we’re approaching the end of the current cycle. My guess is we’re long past the peak of the consumer Web and the mobile/local/social cycle. It peaked at least a year ago and now you have a bunch of monkeys showing up at the end, not knowing that the meteor has already struck and the fire is coming across the landscape and they are toast.”Hmmm. ToastedMonkey.com? Somebody get Billie Joe Armstrong on the phone!Images courtesy of Shutterstock.
In the locker room before her match to get into the U.S. Open semifinals, Serena Williams cried. Her friend, Andy Roddick, had lost to Juan Martin del Potro, signaling the end to Roddick’s outstanding tennis career.Williams showed amazing recuperative powers, gathering her emotions and then going out and disposing of Ana Ivanovic in just 58 minutes at Arthur Ashe Stadium.Williams insisted steadying her emotions was a chore, despite how she played.“It wasn’t easy, to be honest,” Williams said. “I love Andy so much, he is such a good friend. I’ve known him since I was eight years old.”How ready to play did Williams seem? She blasted three aces in the first game en route to her easy win. As is the case when she is on her game, Williams’ serve was dominant.She had 12 aces and 25 of her 46 serves were not returned. In the second game of the second set, Ivanovic got her racket on Williams’ serve only once. Ivanovic had two break points in the seventh game of the first set, but Williams closed it with an ace.And so, Williams will play Sara Errani of Italy in the semifinals. Errani made it to the semis in an emotional way, too, having to beat her best friend and doubles partner, Roberta Vinci, 6-2, 6-4.After switching to a longer, heavier racket this season, Errani has earned four of her six career tournament wins and risen to No. 10 in the world. She lost the French Open final to Maria Sharapova. Errani also will rise to No. 1 in the doubles rankings and Vinci will be No. 2.“Quarterfinal with your best friend, of course, is difficult,” Errani said. “We know each other very well. We played together many times. So was also strange to see her on the other side of the net.”Errani has faced Williams three times – and lost three times. But they have not met since 2009.“She’s such a fighter,” Williams said. “She’s strong and quick.”
Ariana Grande & Nicki Minaj’s “The Light Is Coming” Arrives Facebook https://twitter.com/ArianaGrande/status/1009289088283930624 Listen: Ariana Grande & Nicki Minaj’s New Single ariana-grande-nicki-minajs-light-coming-arrives Email “The Light Is Coming” also follows Grande’s first single from Sweetener, “No Tears Left To Cry,” which has fought its way into contention for song of the summer and has climbed its way to No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100.Sweetener is due out Aug. 17 an available for pre-order now via Grande’s website.Catching Up On Music News Powered By The Recording Academy Just Got Easier. Have A Google Home Device? “Talk To GRAMMYs”Read more Twitter News The new Pharrell-produced single from Grande’s upcoming album ‘Sweetener’ is her latest in a string of collaborations with Minaj Nate HertweckGRAMMYs Jun 20, 2018 – 7:37 am Just one day after Ariana Grande revealed the full artwork for her upcoming album Sweetener, the pop superstar drops her new single, “The Light Is Coming,” featuring Nicki Minaj.Produced by none other than Pharrell Williams, the song’s frantic beat, quirky effects and stair-step melody are right in line with the producer’s signature style. Minaj bursts out of the gate, delivering her bars up front before Grande enters with the promising chorus, singing “the light is coming to give back everything the darkness stole.”The latest Grande/Minaj collaboration follows “Bed,” which dropped on June 14 and showed a more sultry side of both artists. “Bed” is set to be included on Minaj’s new album, Queen, out Aug. 10. Grande and Minaj have joined forces several times in the past, teaming up for “Side To Side” on Grande’s 2016 album Dangerous Woman, “Band Bang” with Jessie J from her 2014 album Sweet Talker, and “Get On Your Knees” from Minaj’s 2014 LP The Pinkprint.
Pence was also explicit that meeting the new five-year goal should be accomplished “by any means necessary,” including switching to commercial rockets. NASA has planned to send astronauts beyond orbit using its new Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion spacecraft, but SLS has been plagued by delays. Earlier this month, Bridenstine testified before a congressional committee that NASA may need to perform the first uncrewed launch of Orion in 2020 using a commercial rocket like a SpaceX Falcon Heavy instead. However, in a statement released later Tuesday, Bridenstine said that “while some of these alternative vehicles could work, none was capable of achieving our goals to orbit around the moon for Exploration Mission-1 within our timeline and on budget. The results of this two-week study reaffirmed our commitment to the SLS. More details will be released in the future.”Despite the challenges, Bridenstine said NASA will work to accomplish the goal of landing astronauts near the moon’s south pole by 2024.Sticking to schedules hasn’t always been NASA’s strong suit, though. Well, at least not since the last time we set foot on the moon. NASA Space Tags 5:20 Pence’s speech echoed overtones of the Cold War tensions that drove NASA to achieve the original Apollo 11 moon landing on schedule 50 years ago this July. Pence said we’re in the midst of another space race, citing China’s recent landing on the far side of the moon and saying that it “revealed their ambition to seize the strategic lunar high ground.” He also mentioned the reliance on Russian rockets to send American astronauts to orbit over the past decade, something the agency hopes to bring to an end with new spacecraft designed by SpaceX, Boeing and NASA itself. “The first woman and the next man on the moon will both be American astronauts, launched by American rockets from American soil.” Now playing: Watch this: Share your voice 9 BIG NEWS: President Trump and @VP Pence have directed @NASA to return astronauts to the Moon in the next 5 years.Challenge accepted. Now let’s get to work.https://t.co/MjcDSG6NLc pic.twitter.com/QqYofbKzOe— Jim Bridenstine (@JimBridenstine) March 26, 2019 NASA’s bid to get humans back to the moon The second man on the moon, Buzz Aldrin, as photographed by the first, Neil Armstrong, who’s reflected in Aldrin’s visor. NASA At a meeting of the National Space Council on Tuesday, Vice President Mike Pence challenged NASA to put astronauts back on the moon by 2024, moving up the agency’s timeline for a return to the lunar surface. “What we need now is urgency,” Pence said during a speech to a crowd at the US Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. “It is the stated policy of this administration and the United States of America to return American astronauts to the moon within the next five years.” NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine, appointed by President Donald Trump, later accepted the challenge, calling it “right on time.” “NASA is going to do everything in its power to meet that deadline,” Bridenstine said. Bridenstine’s Twitter account also sent out a link to NASA’s Moon to Mars page that still listed 2028 as the target for putting new boots on the lunar surface. The page has since been revised to show the new 2024 target for astronauts on the moon. Sci-Tech Comments
Anil Ambani-led Reliance Power is looking forward to secure Rs. 714 crore as bank guarantees and compensations from 18 procurers of electricity after terminating the 4000 MW Tilaiya Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) in Jharkhand, citing delay in land allotment in April last year, as reported by PTI.The company is set to recover Rs. 600 crore as bank guarantees from the procurers who had agreed to purchase electricity and the rest of Rs. 114 crore as compensation for other expenses borne since the initiation of project in 2009. The report cites that the agreement with the 18 procurers in the last lapse.The Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) was cancelled in 2015 by the company since the required land, water pipeline and clearance notice from the ministry of forest and environment were not handed over to the company as per the agreement till 2015.In 2007, the coal ministry had earmarked Kerandari B and C block for the project’s coal requirements. The company had vested a bank guarantee of Rs. 208 crore as security for the coal blocks.The ministry on June 22 issued a notice seeking explanation from the power company as to why the bank guarantee, submitted by the company when securing the coal block, should not be seized for not delivering power, according to a Mint report.”Reliance Power terminated PPA for Tilaiya UMPP entered into with 18 procurers nearly 14 months ago. The PPA termination was due to prolonged delay in fulfilment of the procurers’ development period obligations in respect of land for the power plant and coal mine for more than 5 years. The procurers led by the Lead Procurer, Jharkhand, Urja Vikas Nigam (JUVNL) have already accepted the termination in November 2015,” the company was quoted as saying in response to the ministry’s show-cause notice by the PTI report.The company also added that it had responded to an earlier notice issued by the ministry in January 2014.Earlier this year, the company wanted to close the 4000 MW Krishnapatnam UMPP project in Andhra Pradesh citing increasing coal cost which was imported from Indonesia, among other reasons.Reliance Power registered a 15.8% increase in net profit in the fourth quarter of financial year 2015-2016
For the first time, physicists have entangled a qubit with a “qutrit” – the 3D version of the 2D qubit. Qubit-qutrit entanglement could lead to advantages in quantum computing, such as increased security and more efficient quantum gates, as well as enable novel tests of quantum mechanics. Explore further Coupling qubits to sound in a multimode cavity Citation: Physicists Demonstrate Qubit-Qutrit Entanglement (2008, February 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-02-physicists-qubit-qutrit-entanglement.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The research team, composed of physicists from the University of Queensland, the University of Bristol, and the University of Waterloo, has published its results in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. The researchers made qutrits with biphotons (two correlated photons), resulting in “biphotonic qutrits.” Then, they entangled these qutrits with photonic qubits (made with one photon) using a combination of linear optic elements and measurements.A qutrit, just as it sounds, is the quantum information analogue of the classical trit. Due to its quantum mechanical nature, a qutrit can exist in superpositions of its three basis states. This is similar to how a qubit can exist in superpositions of its two states. Because of the qutrit’s 3D nature, though, it can carry much more information than the qubit. (A string of n classical bits holds 1n states, a string of n qubits holds 2n states, and a string of n qutrits holds 3n states.)Many researchers have investigated the possibilities of entangling a qubit and qutrit, hoping to develop a valuable tool for improving quantum computing and exploring novel quantum phenomena, among other things. The authors’ result now makes such theoretical proposals experimentally testable.“For me, the significance our paper is about how entangling systems to a qubit can be a great way to manipulate that system,” co-author Benjamin Lanyon of the University of Queensland told PhysOrg.com. “In our example, we use this technique to dramatically extend the range of possible transforms on qutrits – these higher dimensional quantum information carriers, which offer loads of advantages, but are otherwise really difficult to handle.”In their study, the researchers show that qubit-qutrit entanglement can be a useful resource to manipulate the difficult-to-handle qutrits. The scientists built a non-linear qutrit polarizer, which involves creation of the entanglement and destructive measurement of the qubit. The result is to temporarily remove a single qutrit state from the qutrit’s superposition. Lanyon explains that this is an example of a measurement-induced nonlinearity (MINL), which is known to be an extremely powerful tool to manipulate qubits and realize an optical quantum computer. “Measurements on the output of optical circuits built from only linear elements (such as beamsplitters, phase shifters and mirrors) can give rise to a non-linear evolution of the input optical field, i.e. for all intents and proposes, the photons seem to have interacted,” said Lanyon. “This is surprising, since photons do not naturally interact in these systems, and the effect is called a measurement-induced nonlinearity. In the context of our study, the MINL gives rise to the non-linear evolution required to generate entanglement and remove a single logical state from a qutrit superposition.”He also gave a visual description. “Consider that there are a number of different paths that the photons could take through the optical circuit,” he said. “As in the double-slit experiment with electrons, the photons take all these paths at once, and, at the output, we end up with a large superposition. Now let’s make a measurement of the whole (or part) of the output state. Certain results mean that certain paths were not taken – and therefore we can get rid of paths this way, conditional on getting certain measurement outcomes. Very clever measurements can leave you with a path history that results in entanglement.”The researchers also propose a number of extensions to their work. For example, a pair of entangled qubit-qutrit states could be used to create qutrit-qutrit entanglement, which would first require entangling the two qubits. High-brightness single-photon sources currently in development will help with these kinds of future experiments. The researchers also propose that using MINLs as a manipulation technique is not limited to photons, but can be applied to any type of bosonic quantum information carrier.The scientists predict that higher dimensional entanglement will have applications including optimizing security in quantum information systems, and increasing channel capacity for quantum communication, among other uses. More information: Lanyon, B. P., Weinhold, T. J., Langford, N. K., O’Brien, J. L., Resch, K. J., Gilchrist, A., and White, A. G. “Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits.” Physical Review Letters 100, 060504 (2008).Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.